Review of the biomechanics of SI joint and sacropelvic fixation (Casaroli - Med Eng Phys 2019)
What do we know about the biomechanics of the sacroiliac joint and of sacropelvic fixation? A literature review
Casaroli G, Bassani T, Brayda-Bruno M, Luca A, Galbusera F.
Med Eng Phys. 2019 Nov;76:1-12. [Epub 2019 Dec 19].
The purpose of this review is to summarize the general knowledge about the biomechanics of the sacroiliac joint and sacropelvic fixation techniques. Additionally, this study aims to support biomechanical investigations in defining experimental protocols as well as numerical modeling of the sacropelvic structures. The sacroiliac joint is characterized by a large variability of shape and ranges of motion among individuals. Although the ligament network and the anatomical features strongly limit the joint movements, sacroiliac displacements and rotations are not negligible. Currently available treatments for sacroiliac joint dysfunction include physical therapy, steroid injections, Radio-frequency ablation of specific neural structures, and open or minimally invasive SIJ fusion. In long posterior construct, the most common solutions are the iliac screws and the S2 alar - iliac screws, whereas for the joint fixation alone, mini - invasive alternative system can be used. Several studies reported the clinical outcomes of the different techniques and investigated the biomechanical stability of the relative construct, but the effect of sacropelvic fixation techniques on the joint flexibility and on the stress generated into the bone is still unknown. In our opinion, more biomechanical analyses on the behavior of the sacroiliac joint may be performed in order to better predict the risk of failure or instability of the joint.